Company Name Material Name Biomimicry Category HQ (Country) Year Founded Founders About Company Website
3D Bio-Tissues Ltd Lab Grown Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Cultivated animal cells GBR 2019 Dr Che Connon, Dr Ricardo Gouveia

A biotech start-up spun out from Newcastle University in 2019, 3D Bio-Tissues (3DBT) is at the forefront of producing bio-equivalent tissues for clinical and cellular agriculture. We apply novel bio-inspired manufacturing processes to generate complex structures.
3M Thinsulate™ Featherless Insulation Down Recycled material USA 1902 John Dwan, Hermon Cable, Henry Bryan, William A. McGonagle.

Since its founding as Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company in 1902, 3M (rebranded officially in 2002) has made scientific and technical innovations to launch more than 60,000 products used today in homes, hospitals, schools, and other industries. The original Thinsulate™ Insulation was launched in 1979 and 3M continues to innovate in this space. In 2015, 3M™ Thinsulate™ Featherless Insulation was announced as a kinder alternative to feather down made from 100% post-consumer plastic bottles.
Adriano di Marti Desserto®, Deserttex® Leather/Exotic Skins Blend MEX 2019 Adrián López Velarde, Marte Cázarez.

After working in the furniture, automotive, and fashion industries and seeing first hand the problem of leather’s environmental pollution, Adrián López Velarde and Marte Cázarez, both hailing from Mexico, founded Adriano Di Marti to create an alternative to animal leather. After two years of research and development, Adrián and Marte showcased their animal-free leather Desserto in October 2019 in Milan, Italy. This plant-based leather is made from a blend of nopal cactus and recycled fibers, offering performance for a variety of applications. In 2021, they launched Deserttex, a cactus blend specifically for the automobile industry.
ALT TEX N/A Silk/Polyester Plant-derived CAN 2019 Myra Arshad and Avneet Ghotra
ALT TEX uses a patent-pending food-to-fabric technology which reengineers food waste into a bioplastic fiber to create circular textiles and products.
Food waste is collected from the food manufacturing industry, which would otherwise go to landfill.
Fermentation technology is used to combine food waste with microbes to produce precursors and ultimately create high strength polymers.
Using melt extrusions, they are able to create filament fibers with high performance qualities like durability and versatility.
ALT TEX fibers are biodegradable and can drop-in to existing factory infrastructure.
Yarns can be woven or knit using existing machinery.
By leveraging food waste as feedstock, ALT TEX is cost competitive to other premium sustainable fabric alternatives.
Alt. Leather N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived AUS 2022 Tina Funder

Alt. Leather is a high-performance 100% bio-based leather alternative, turning waste and regenerative plants into a material for application across fashion, footwear, furniture, automotive and more. Zero petroleum-plastics. Zero animal products. Ethically made.
Amadeu Materials LaVeg Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived BRA 2016 Flavia Amadeu

AMADEU – Amazonian Materials & Design United is a Brazilian design company focused on innovating the fashion and design industry through sustainable materials with more than 18 years of research and practice experience. All their components and materials are from Brazil, including natural latex, rubber sheets, and rubberized fabrics. LaVeg, their next-gen leather, is made of natural latex from live rubber trees and is recyclable, biodegradable, and waterproof. It can also be colored and texturized according to customer requests. The company has a strong presence in the Amazon rainforest, working directly with local communities.
AMSilk Biosteel® (fibers & finishing) Silk/Polyester Microbe-derived DEU 2008 Thomas Scheibel

Founded in 2008, AMSilk GmbH is a supplier of vegan silk biopolymers. In 2013, AMSilk presented its innovative range of high-performance Biosteel® fibers for textiles and industrial applications worldwide. Biosteel® fiber is made of spider silk protein produced by genetically engineered microbes and spun into fiber.
Ananas Anam Piñatex® Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived GBR 2011 Carmen Hijosa

Dr. Carmen Hijosa founded Ananas Anam to develop an alternative to animal-based leather. In the 1990s, she worked in the Philippines as a consultant in leather exports and became aware of the detrimental environmental impact of animal leathers. Inspired by the use of pineapple leaf fibers in textiles, she wanted to explore using this raw material to create nonwoven fabric. Her background in design and further study at the Royal College of Art in London led to the creation of Piñatex.
Arda Biomaterials New Grain™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived GBR 2022 Edward Mitchell, Brett Cotten.

Arda Biomaterials is developing smart biomaterials for the circular economy. Leveraging chemistry, materials science, and biotechnology, waste streams can be valorized into valuable products across textiles, home goods, infrastructure, packaging, food & beverage, and more. Arda’s first product is ‘New Grain’, an animal-free and plastic-free next-gen leather made using spent grain from the brewing industry — an abundant by-product normally destined for animal feed. By using spent grain Arda is skipping inefficient animal agriculture and developing a material that is sustainable, biodegradable, and taps into local supply chains. Wherever there is a brewery there can be New Grain.
Asahi Kasei Corporation Bemberg™ Silk/Polyester Plant-derived JPN 1931 Shitagau Noguchi

Asahi Kasei Corporation is a multinational Japanese chemical company, that is specialized in serving markets with performance plastics, synthetic rubber and elastomers, packaging products, performance coating materials, membranes and systems, and acrylonitrile. At the same time, it serves as a driver for the development of products and product grades to open up new businesses and application areas. Two of their materials can be classified as next-gen leather and next-gen silk: Lamous and Bemberg™, respectively.
Asahi Kasei Corporation Lamous Leather/Exotic Skins Blend JPN 1931 Shitagau Noguchi

Asahi Kasei Corporation is a multinational Japanese chemical company, that is specialized in serving markets with performance plastics, synthetic rubber and elastomers, packaging products, performance coating materials, membranes and systems, and acrylonitrile. At the same time, it serves as a driver for the development of products and product grades to open up new businesses and application areas. Two of their materials can be classified as next-gen leather and next-gen silk: Lamous and Bemberg™, respectively.
Atma Banofi Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived IND 2022 Jinali Mody
BARKTEX® Bark Cloth Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived DEU 1999 Mary Barongo-Heintz & Oliver Heintz

The company has been a biomaterial and cultural material pioneer since 1999 with textiles, composites and leather alternatives. They specialize in upgrading traditionally manufactured cultural heritage materials with state-of-the-art finishings for greater functionality and scalability. Operations in Uganda, Brazil, Papua New Guinea, Honduras and Germany.
Beyond Leather Leap™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived DNK 2016 Hannah Michaud, Mikael Eydt.

After taking a course on biomimicry in 2016, Hannah Michaud was inspired to create a material using ingredients from food production waste. She met Mikael Eydt, CEO and Co-Founder, in 2017 and the company changed its name from The Apple Girl to Beyond Leather Materials. The company produces Leap™, an upcycled apple waste turned into a plant-based leather alternative.
BioFluff (Bio-Fluff Inc.) SAVIAN Fur Plant-derived USA 2022 Martin Stüebler, Roni Gamzon, Steven Usdan

BioFluff is a Biomaterials company that is creating 100% plant-based and biodegradable materials, currently operating their brand SAVIAN to help the fashion industry prevent animal farming and replace plastic fur. BioFluff’s provisional patented technology uses plant fibres from several unusual fibre plants – organic in nature, and some from agricultural waste. They are augmented in a fibre pre-treatment process to extract technical fibres that mimic animal hair in length, shape, softness, and durability. These fibres are assembled with minor retrofitting of existing mechanical processes to mimic different types of fur and shearling. As BioFluff Inc. expands, it will have many different product lines/types, some aimed for luxury/premium fashion, while others will centre around toys or packaging alternatives. Working with Ganni, Stella McCartney, and others has given us industry-wide credibility and proved Savian to be a foundational player in the fashion industry’s steps towards carbon neutrality and increased adoption of preferred materials.

BioFluff was the youngest start-up to be nominated for the LMH Innovation Award in 2022.

SAVIAN has been used in apparel, outerwear and handbags.

Collaborations: Ganni, Stella McCartney, and a capsule collection called Everloop that featured a SAVIAN next-gen fur ‘sweater’ debuted at Premiere Vision.
BIOFUR® BIOFUR® Fur Plant-derived USA 2023 Kym Canter

Innovation company focused on creating bio based pile textiles for the fashion, lifestyle and performance categories starting with BIOFUR®, a recently developed 100% bio based and 100% compostable replacement for animal and synthetic pile textiles.
In collaboration with partners in the US, Europe and Asia, BIOFUR® eill use a bio-oriented supply chain including 100% bio coatings, backing yarns and colour pigments. BIOFUR® is currently securing 100% bio based certification in Europe and the USA. BIOFUR is set to begin scalable production later in 2024.
Bioleather N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived IND 2019 Pritesh Mistry

Bioleather is an India-based company that produces next-gen leather materials from microbes. In 2019, they launched their first product, Bioleather, a biodegradable material dyed with all-natural ingredients. The company’s mission is to restore biodiversity and reduce the impact of climate change by transforming the global leather trade.
Biophilica Treekind™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived GBR 2019 Mira Nameth

Award-winning artist and self-described nature collector Mira Nameth came up with the idea of using London’s ubiquitous plant litter as the basis for a sustainable material. In 2019, she founded Biophilica to bring this idea to life. The company launched a crowdfunding campaign in September 2020 to raise funds to produce the first 500 m² (~ 600 yd²) of Treekind, their plant-based leather alternative.
Bolt Threads Microsilk™ Silk/Polyester Microbe-derived USA 2009 Dan Widmaier, David Breslauer, Ethan Mirsky.

Bolt Threads was founded in 2009 by 3 individuals in the bioengineering, biophysics, and biochemistry field with the idea of developing better materials for a better world. In 2012, Bolt Threads launched spider silk fibers to market, Microsilk, and expanded to a 32,000 sq ft facility in 2015. By 2018, the company launched its innovative Mylo material and has continued to innovate in this space. In 2020, Bolt Threads created a consortium with adidas, Kering, lululemon, and Stella McCartney for exclusive access to Mylo.
Botanè Botanical Cashmere Wool/Acrylic Blend ITA 2020 Paola Caracciolo

Botanè was founded to create vegan textiles that embody the softness and thermal properties of cashmere but derived from plant-based sources. They are committed to utilizing natural raw materials using an innovative manufacturing process. They seek to combine luxury and performance, including thermoregulation, while maintaining ethical principles. Their development to date has been with woven textiles.
Carbonwave N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived PRI 2020 Geoff Chapin, Ben Ellis.

Founded in January 2020, Carbonwave (previously C-Combinator) is a developer of ultra-regenerative, plant-based, advanced biomaterials from seaweed. The company transforms Sargassum seaweed, a resource long considered waste and that doesn’t need land or other typical aids to grow, into biomaterials that replace derivatives from oil and other harmful industry inputs. Carbonwave is part of a new wave of companies that are building the next-generation economies that will heal the planet through materials that are regeneratively sourced from our oceans.
CAXACORI STUDIO Amazonian Bioleather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived PER 2021 Jorge Cajacuri, Celeste Moreno, Fabrizzio Carpena
CAXACORI STUDIO designs and develops circular biomaterials for the fashion industry. They work with and empower indigenous Amazon communities to make sustainable bioleather from wild Amazonian latex, generating income for native families and positively impacting the forests.
CAXACORI STUDIO is also experimenting with fibers and waste such as cocoa, grape husks and corn.
Circ N/A Silk/Polyester Recycled material USA 2011 Peter Majeranowski and Dr. Julian Bobe
Circ is a textile-to-textile recycling company.
Circ has created a proprietary hydrothermal process to separate polyester-cotton blended textiles and recover both
the polyester and cotton (cellulose) portions to be made into like-new fibers for textiles. Circ’s ability to separate and recover both portions of polyester-cotton blends is allows for the industry to achieve textile-to-textile circularity.
Circ regenerates the cellulose from the cotton portion of polycotton textile waste to create Circ Lyocell.
They are able to produce both staple and filament fibers to match virgin tree-based lyocell with the resulting fibers having
the ability to look and feel like silk. Circ also regenerates the polyester into Circ Polyester that performs as well as
virgin poly. Both fibers work in existing manufacturing infrastructures, allowing for a ‘drop-in’ replacement to their virgin counterparts.
Corium Biotech N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Cultivated animal cells PRT 2020 Maria Gonçalves Maia, Margot Muller.

The mission of Corium Biotech is to elevate luxury by preserving biodiversity.
We are bio-producing exotic leather in laboratory from animal cells to stop animal killing for fashion purposes.
Coronet BioVeg Leather/Exotic Skins Blend ITA 1966 Enrico De Marco

Coronet has more than 50 years of experience making synthetic leather and continues to innovate in this space. With headquarters based in Milan, they also have activities in China and Vietnam. They offer four lines of materials, including BioVeg, a material made with recycled polyester from plastic bottles, and bio-polyols obtained from non-food and GMO-free corn crops. BioVeg can be up to 81% bio-based.
DevoHome N/A Fur Plant-derived UKR 2013 Oksana Devoe

First in the world biodegradable Hemp Fur was created by Ukrainian hemp textile producer, tm Devohome in 2018, patented in 2021.
It is a substitute for animal and synthetic fur.


1. 100% natural and biodegradable
2. vegan
3. antibacterial/antifungal
4. warm


Hemp fiber – 50%
Viscose – 50%
Knitted base – 100% cotton
Glue- starch
Weight: 319 gr/m2
Dencity: 475 gr/m2

It is produced industrially in large quantities.
Application: closing (fur coats, vests), accessories (hats, gloves), toys, home textile, such as cushions and bed covers.
Eastman Naia™ Silk/Polyester Plant-derived USA 1920 George Eastman

Founded in 1920, Eastman is a global specialty materials company that produces a broad range of products found in items people use every day. With the purpose of enhancing the quality of life in a material way, Eastman works with customers to deliver innovative products and solutions while maintaining a commitment to safety and sustainability. The company produces Naia™, a cellulosic fiber made of 60% sustainably sourced wood pulp and 40% recycled wasted plastics. It is available as both a filament yarn and a staple fiber.
Eco Supreme N/A Down Microbe-derived USA 2008 Ivan Wang

Eco Supreme produces home goods and apparel made from renewable inputs like corn and cassava and converting the sugars into PLA (polylactic acids). Their products are 100% biodegradable, antibacterial, hypoallergenic and thermal insulating, moisture absorbing, lint free and quick drying. Their biodegradable products include bedding and other home goods, apparel, and baby products.
Eco Vegan Leather Private Limited Ultraw Vegan Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived IND 1920 N/A

Eco Vegan Leather was founded in 2021 and produces a plant-derived next-gen leather called Ultraw Vegan Leather. The company claims that Ultraw is a cellulose-based material, 100% biodegradable, and manufactured sustainably using a zero-discharge process.
ECOPEL FLUR Fur Plant-derived CHN 2004 Christopher Sarfati

Ecopel Faux Fur has been a leader in luxury faux fur for 2 decades offering to the world of fashion high quality animal fur replicas. Driven by a deep commitment to more sustainable practices, Ecopel Faux Fur champions the use of recycled inputs and thrive to develop a new approach to fur using vegetal and sustainable fibers.
Ecopel KOBA® Faux fur Fur Blend CHN 2003 Christopher Sarfati

Ecopel is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of petroleum-based faux fur. Committed to phasing out the use of non-renewable fibers, the company partnered with DuPont to create KOBA® faux fur as their first step in this process, in 2019. Two years later, Ecopel partnered with the French faux fur mill Peltex to create Cannaba wool, a material made of blends of hemp and recycled fiber that resulted in fur with a wooly look, often called shearling. Also in 2021, the company announced the development of a GACHA faux fur made from 100% biodegradable fibers.
ECOPEL New Generation Fur Plant-derived CHN 2004 Christopher Sarfati

Ecopel Faux Fur has been a leader in luxury faux fur for 2 decades offering to the world of fashion high quality animal fur replicas. Driven by a deep commitment to more sustainable practices, Ecopel Faux Fur champions the use of recycled inputs and thrive to develop a new approach to fur using vegetal and sustainable fibers.
Ecopel (Peltex) Cannaba Wool Fur Blend CHN 2003 Christopher Sarfati

Ecopel is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of petroleum-based faux fur. Committed to phasing out the use of non-renewable fibers, the company partnered with DuPont to create KOBA® faux fur as their first step in this process, in 2019. Two years later, Ecopel partnered with the French faux fur mill Peltex to create Cannaba wool, a material made of blends of hemp and recycled fiber that resulted in fur with a wooly look, often called shearling. Also in 2021, the company announced the development of a GACHA faux fur made from 100% biodegradable fibers.
EcoSimple N/A Wool/Acrylic Recycled material BRA 2010 Cláudio Rocha, Marisa Ferragutt.

EcoSimple was founded in 2010 to fill the gap in the market for an upscale recycled product. The company uses 100% recycled materials for creating fabrics for fashion, home, and decor. In 2016, they opened their showroom and brand store in São Paulo with updated collections for clients and customers.
Ecovative Design MycoFlex™, Forager™ Hides Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium USA 2007 Gavin McIntyre, Eben Bayer.

Eben Bayer and Gavin McIntyre developed and patented a method for growing mycelium-based insulation called Greensulate as part of a course project at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. In 2007, the pair founded Ecovative Design to use mycelium to grow materials that replace plastics and reduce animal slaughter. They first developed and commercialized production of mycelium-based packaging called Mushroom® Packaging, which is used by a number of top brands. Since their founding, the company has received numerous awards and holds dozens of patents for mycelium-based packaging and materials, including a leather alternative.
ENKA N/A Silk/Polyester Plant-derived POL 1924 Parent Company: International Chemical Investors Group

ENKA has been manufacturing ENKA® Viscose from cellulose for nearly a century at their production facilities in Obernburg, Germany. ENKA® Viscose yarns have silk-like qualities and are often used for ties, scarves, and linings in clothing and outerwear. The production process has been continually updated as technology has improved to include the most recent environmental standards.
ESG Brands BANEX™ Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived USA 2022 Chase Kahmann, Gavin Pechey, Ryan Bachman, Ravi Kallayil.

ESG Brands is scaling a natural fiber, BANEX™, made from the byproduct of daily banana harvests. Their technology transforms agricultural waste into future materials. They are developing climate-positive materials while improving upon the interaction between agriculture and textile making. The team consists of agriculture producers, materials scientists along with materials and machine manufacturers.
ettitude PLNTcashmere™, PLNTwool™ , CleanBamboo®, PLNTsilk™ Silk/Polyester, Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived USA 2014 Phoebe Yu, Kat Dey

ettitude is a fabric innovation company and lifestyle brand, and the creators of 100% traceable and patented CleanBamboo® sustainable fibers and textiles. CleanBamboo® is a versatile lyocell processed fiber made from regeneratively grown bamboo using green chemistry and a closed loop process. 

Using the CleanBamboo® technology, ettitude has created ,  PLNTwool™ and PLNTcashmere™. PLNTwool™ is hypoallergenic, temperature regulating and offers moisture management. PLNTcashmere™ is handwashable and long lasting. PLNTsilk™ is hypoallergenic, breathable and washable.
Evoco N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived CAN 2018 Jason Robinson; Natalie Ashdown

Evoco is a global innovation company founded to defossilize the material value chain, enabling businesses and consumers to cost-effectively replace fossil-derived materials with high-performance, more sustainable alternatives.
Evrnu NuCycl™ Silk/Polyester Recycled material USA 2020 Stacy Flynn, Christopher Stanev.

Evrnu is an advanced materials innovations company focused on developing technologies for the textile industry. The company’s first technology, NyCycl™, addresses these issues by creating a closed-loop system where textile waste can be converted into virgin fiber over and over again. Due to the molecular alignment of the re-polymerized fiber, NuCycl™ can meet the same tenacity performance of virgin synthetics or man-made cellulosic, even after being recycled multiple times. As a lyocell fiber capable of both staple and continuous filament yarns, NuCycl™ may also offer a replacement for silk fibers.
Faborg Weganool™ Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived IND 2015 Shankar Dhakshinamoorthy

With a background in fabric making and embroidery, Shankar Dhakshinamoorthy founded Faborg in 2015. He began creating sustainable fabrics from plants, including the Calotropis plant (Calotropis gigantea or “Giant Milkweed”) which grows as a weed in dry areas of India. The first fabric used a blend of Calotropis and cotton called “vegan wool” due to its wool-like properties. Faborg uses a patented mechanical process to create its vegan wool, using a standard blend of 30% Calotropis fibers with 70% organic cotton. WEGANOOL™ uses 100% biodegradable and natural chemicals in the form of minerals and natural dyes. It is thermoregulating and antimicrobial.
Faircraft N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Cultivated animal cells FRA 2020 Haïkel Balti, Cesar Valencia Gallardo.

The Parisian company Faircraft was founded in 2021 to create lab-grown leather. Faircraft has taken the best of cellular culture, material science, and tissue engineering techniques to come up with a cell-based alternative to traditional leather. Faircraft states that its material meets industry requirements, produces far fewer CO2 emissions, and has great mechanical performance and customization capabilities.
Fiquetex N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived COL 2017 Alejandro Moreno, Gabriel Moreno.

A Fiquetex foi fundada em 2017 para desenvolver produtos sustentáveis feitos de uma planta chamada Fique, usada para produzir cordas, cordas e bolsas. Os cofundadores da empresa começaram a usar os resíduos da planta fique para produzir tecidos não tecidos que encontraram uso na indústria de moda e calçados.
Fiscatech E-ULTRA® Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2014 Fiscatech is part of Pellan Italia, the group of companies presided by Carlotta Pignatti Costamagna.

a blend of E-ULTRA and recycled plastics (35% biobased, 50% rPET, 15% fossil)
Fiscatech Fly Tela Eco Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2014 Fiscatech is part of Pellan Italia, the group of companies presided by Carlotta Pignatti Costamagna.

a blend of E-ULTRA and recycled plastics (35% biobased, 50% rPET, 15% fossil)
Fiscatech Rinnova Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2014 Fiscatech is part of Pellan Italia, the group of companies presided by Carlotta Pignatti Costamagna.

a blend of E-ULTRA and recycled plastics (35% biobased, 50% rPET, 15% fossil)
Fiscatech Ultra Wer Leather/Exotic Skins Blend ITA 2014 Fiscatech is part of Pellan Italia, the group of companies presided by Carlotta Pignatti Costamagna.

a blend of E-ULTRA and recycled plastics (35% biobased, 50% rPET, 15% fossil)
Flaura, cuir végétal Apple waste leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived CAN 2022 Fannie Laroche and Grégory Hersant

The company positions itself in the luxury textile sector as an alternative leather producer and supplier. The objective of the company is to offer plant-based leathers that are natural, ecological, and made from local raw materials while following market trends.
Flocus Flocus™ Kapok Down, Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived NLD 2014 Sara Cicognani & Jeroen Muijsers

FLOCUS™ uses cutting-edge automation for kapok pod processing at scale. Using kapok fibers, they have the capability to create a diverse range of sustainable products, including yarns, fabrics, fillings, and nonwovens. They are committed to fair labor standards and safe harvesting practices, collaborating with Kapok Regenerative Agriculture Forestry (KRAF). The natural properties of the FLOCUS™ fiber are: thermoregulating (has a hollow fiber), hydrophobic/moisture management, anti-moth, anti-mite, antibacterial and oil absorbent. Because of its low-density, Kapok is 5 times lighter than cotton and also offers flotation. Applications can cover many industries including apparel and home goods.
Fruitleather Rotterdam N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived NLD 2016 Koen Meerkerk, Hugo de Boon.

Koen Meerkerk and Hugo de Boon met as students at the Willem de Kooning Academy. As a class project, they focussed on finding a use for the nearly 7000 kg of plant waste from the twice-weekly fruit market in Rotterdam. Although vendors in Rotterdam are required to pay to dispose of waste, most are simply left behind. They began collecting unsold fruits from the vendors and experimenting with ways of making edible fruit leather (also known as fruit rollups) to create a leather material for applications in accessories and shoes.
Fruitonauts Fruitazing Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived POL 2019 Peter Matuszewski, Lukas Piszczyk, Matt Toporowitz

FRUITONAUTS’ mission is to totally RE-DEFINE the meaning of NATURAL LEATHER – with fresh & natural FRUITY sensory experience of the 1st Genuine Fruit Leather!  Our aim is to make a vital change in the way that we used to think of leather – to show that a high-performance material can be easily made from FRUIT PEELS instead of ANIMAL HIDES!  We use our passion for industrial DESIGN & deep expertise in MATERIAL ENGINEERING to make the leather goods sector more CIRCULAR & SUSTAINABLE – by creating scalable & adaptable solutions for mass production of novel, plant-based materials.  All to enable reduction of mass, industrial usage of animal leathers and their synthetic substitutes. For the sake of achieving UN SDGs 12 & 13 – in a very GOOD TASTE.
General Silicones Compo-SiL® Leather/Exotic Skins Blend TWN 1970 Ching Chaun Lin

Compo-SiL® is a patented technology and silicone based material brand invented by General Silicones, which is founded in 1970 and has more than 50 years of experience in manufacturing. Different from other vegan leathers, Compo-SiL® vegan leather is silicone based. Our vegan leather is cruelty-free and has the advantages of silicone, like eco-friendly, weather resistance, durability, and more. With Compo-SiL®’s technology, the problem of silicone adhesion is solved and can be applied in textile, apparel, automotive, anti-slip products, and other markets.
Gozen Bioworks Xylozen™ Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived TUR 2020 Ece Gözen Akın

Leather is one of the most versatile, durable, and desirable materials in fashion. Gozen Bioworks is a next-gen material company based in San Francisco & Turkey backed by SOSV. Gozen has met top performance specs. It was designed to be versatile and durable. It is thin yet strong and soft enough to replace high-end lambskin. Gozen designed their material with scale in mind.
Gucci Demetra Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 1921 Guccio Gucci

Founded in 1921, Gucci is one of the oldest Italian fashion brands still in operation. The brand began its journey by producing luxury travel goods, as well as equestrian equipment, then adding bags and shoes using premium materials. In 1950 Gucci was considered the preferred brand of Hollywood stars due to its extravagant and opulent designs. Since 1999, Gucci has been part of the French global luxury group Kering. In 2021, after two years of in-house research and development, Gucci launched Demetra, a next-gen material that is said to be made primarily from sustainable, renewable, and bio-based sources.
Gunas New York Mulbtex™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2009 Sugandh G. Agrawal

Gunas was founded in 2009 by designer and animal lover Sugandh Agrawal to create cruelty-free, luxury accessories. Initially made in New York’s fashion district, she now sources and produces shoes and bags in limited editions using small-scale manufacturers in Seoul, Korea. In 2018, GUNAS sourced a material, MulbTex, made in Korea from mulberry plant pulp to use as an alternative leather in men’s bags. In 2019, GUNAS completed a seed investment round to expand its offerings into beauty products, especially for millennial consumers interested in sustainability.
Hemp Black HEMP BLACK™/hide Leather/Exotic Skins Blend USA 2017 N/A

Hemp Black’s parent company is Ecofibre Ltd., an Australian hemp technology company with over twenty years of experience addressing resource sustainability issues. Hemp Black uses innovative technologies to advance the non-toxic and environmentally friendly use of hemp in consumer products.

HEMP BLACK™/ hide is a next-gen leather made with REPREVE® backing, Polyurethane (PU), and a hemp flower extract topcoat. Available in 120+ colors and various textures, this material can be used in applications, especially in seating and home goods.

HEMP BLACK™/ hide is made with REPREVE® backing, Polyurethane (PU), and a hemp flower extract topcoat. The REPREVE® backing is made from recycled plastic bottles. According to the company, HEMP BLACK™/ hide is produced with 90% less energy and 80% fewer solvents than current-gen synthetic leather. For every square yard of HEMP BLACK/hide, nearly 12 plastic bottles are recycled. The hemp flower extract provides antimicrobial and odor neutralizing properties to the topcoat. HEMP BLACK™/hide meets FAA flammability requirements and demonstrates no discoloration or cracks in any layer, including the topcoat, in crocking tests. The flexibility and drape can be tuned for specific product applications.
ISA TanTec COSM™ (Creation of Sustainable Materials -HyphaLite, TerraLite and NatraLite ) Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived MAC 1995 Thomas Schneider

COSM™ (Creation of Sustainable Materials) is a division of ISA TanTec that specializes in the development and production of biodegradable materials made from mushroom, mycelium, and plant-based materials. HyphaLite HP is the first product the company launched under COSM and it is made from mushrooms, being ~90% bio-based and biodegradable.
Jacinto & Liro N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived PHL 2009 Anne Krystle Yee, Noreen Bautista, Patricia Lalisan, Ryan Pelongco, Charm Cruz.

Jacinto & Lirio is a Filipino social enterprise that transforms water hyacinth into sustainably made, multifunctional leather goods with a mission to empower families affected by the problem of water hyacinth infestation, thus generating a viable environmental, social, and commercial solution for poverty-stricken communities and colonial mentality.
Jord Suberhide™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2013 Michael Bluestone, Amir Shah.

The American sustainable-focused brand JORD has developed its own vegan leather called Suberhide made with Portuguese cork fused to a polymeric layer. The next-gen luxury product uses a proprietary process that involves fusing a polymeric layer over agglomerated natural Portuguese corks.
KD New York Vegetable Cashmere Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived USA 1980 David Lee, Tricia Kaye.

In 1980, Oakland ballet dancers David Lee and Tricia Kaye made knit footless tights that could be folded over at the waist, starting a revolution in dancewear and workout wear. In 2019 they introduced Vegetable Cashmere™, a plant-based blend of fibers developed as an alternative to animal fiber cashmere. It is machine-washable, sensitive skin-friendly, UV and pest resistant. Vegetable Cashmere™ can be used in applications such as apparel, home goods and footwear.
Keel Labs N/A Silk/Polyester Plant-derived USA 2017 Tessa Callaghan, Aleks Gosiewski, Aaron Nesser.

Keel Labs is a New York-based biomaterial company that creates degradable yarns from seaweed, specifically kelp and other similar types of algae. A substance called alginate is combined with other renewable biopolymers for further processing, resulting in biodegradable fiber that can be knitted into a textile or used in 3D printing processes. The dyeing process is chemical-free. The company’s goal is to eventually replace petroleum-based materials and become a zero-waste fabric suitable for clothing and footwear.
Kintra Fibers Kintra Silk/Polyester, Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived USA 2018 Billy McCall, Alissa Baier-Lentz.

Kintra Fibers is a materials science company that has developed a proprietary bio-based and biodegradable polyester. With the ability to fine-tune resin and yarn performance properties, Kintra yarns are applicable in a wide range of knit and woven textile applications. Some of the fabrics they have created to date include a satin, with a silk-like hand feel, and knits with a cashmere-like hand feel. Additional applications include using Kintra as an alternative to traditional PET polyester, and Nylon.
Kuraray Co. Ltd. CLARINO™ Sustainable Collection Leather/Exotic Skins Blend JPN 1926 Magosaburō Ōhara

Kurashiki Co. Ltd. started its business commercializing synthetic rayon in 1926. Decades later, they integrated into their portfolio the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber, and, in the 1960s, they independently developed and marketed the man-made leather CLARINO™. Since then, Kuraray commercialized synthetic isoprene chemical products, and thermoplastic elastomer, among other things before becoming a specialty chemical global company in the 2000s.
La Tannerie Vegetale N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived FRA 2019 Fanny Deleage

La Tannerie Vegetale has made a leather-like material called PHyli. PHyli is biodegradable and recyclable and uses no plastics. It is available on rolls, can be made with a linen base and can be embossed. PHyli is also available in pellets for injection molding.
Le Qara N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived PER 2017 Jacqueline L. Cruz, Isemar Cruz.

Le Qara, “leather” in Quechua, an indigenous Andean language, was founded in 2018 by sisters Jacqueline and Isemar Cruz. They won the H&M Foundation’s 2019 Global Change Award for their bioleather. In May 2020, the company was a finalist in the launch category of the MIT $100K Entrepreneurship Competition. Le Qara has filed for patents for its bioleather process and for the product composition and expects to achieve industrial scale production in mid 2022.
Lenzing Ecovero™ Silk/Polyester Plant-derived AUT 1938 Emil Hamburger

The Lenzing Group is an international group with its headquarters in Lenzing, Austria, and production sites in all major markets. Lenzing produces wood-based viscose fibers, modal fibers, lyocell fibers, and filament yarn, which are used in the textile industry – in clothing, home textiles, and technical textiles – as well as in the nonwoven industry. Two of the company’s brands – TENCEL™ and ECOVERO™ – are next-gen materials used in the textile industry – in clothing, home textiles, and technical textiles – as well as in the nonwoven industry.
Lenzing Tencel™ Silk/Polyester, Down, Fur, Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived AUT 1938 Emil Hamburger

The Lenzing Group is an international group with its headquarters in Lenzing, Austria, and production sites in all major markets. Lenzing produces wood-based viscose fibers, modal fibers, lyocell fibers, and filament yarn, which are used in the textile industry – in clothing, home textiles, and technical textiles – as well as in the nonwoven industry. Two of the company’s brands – TENCEL™ and ECOVERO™ – are next-gen materials used in the textile industry – in clothing, home textiles, and technical textiles – as well as in the nonwoven industry.
MABE Bio Angico Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived BRA 2022 Marina Belintani and Rachel Maranhao

We are a biotech startup based in São Paulo – Brazil, that combines technology and nature to create new materials from plants, such as bioleather and bioplastic. By investigating the potential of Brazilian biodiversity, we create materials that can coexist in balance with the planet and regenerate it.
Malai Biomaterials Malai Biocomposite Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived IND 2018 Zuzana Gombosova & C. S. Susmith, Co-founders

We are a material design and development start-up based in Kerala, South India. We specialize in developing materials based on bacterial cellulose grown on coconut processing waste. All our materials are vegan and home compostable.
Metsä Spring Ltd. Kuura Fur, Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived FIN 2018 N/A

Metsä Spring Ltd. is an innovation company investing in wood-based, circular economy start-ups. Parent company Metsäliitto Cooperative is owned and managed by 100,000 Finnish forest owners. Kuura™ is the company’s cellulosic fiber made of softwood pulp from pine and spruce trees from Finnish forests.  Kuura™ fiber is versatile for a wide range of apparel applications. In 2020/21, Metsä Spring partnered with Japanese textile company Itochu. In early 2024, Metsä Spring announced the launch of a pre-study for a commercial mill to produce their Kuura™ textile fiber.
Miko Dinamica® Leather/Exotic Skins Blend ITA 2015 Miko is part of the Sage Group Automotive Interiors, a subsidiary of the Asahi Kasei Corporation.

Miko was founded in 1997 and acquired by Sage Automotive Interiors (an Asahi Kasei subsidiary based in South Carolina, USA) in 2015. Dinamica® is the core material of the Italian brand Miko. This suede-like automotive interior fabric is used by a growing number of top automotive brands, and is made with polyurethane fibers, 70% recycled polyester, and is available in more than 100 colors.
MINK N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2000 Rebecca Mink

The MINK company was founded by activist and celebrity stylist Rebecca Mink as she searched for sustainable alternatives in luxury products. Over the years the MINK brand has made shoes for Miley Cyrus, Natalie Portman, Madonna, Pamela Anderson, and Jennifer Lopez, and for brands, including CHANEL, Dolce & Gabbana, GUCCI, Christian Louboutin, and Jimmy Choo. MINK brand took advantage of its facilities and shoe masters to study, research and create its own plant-based leather. MINK partnered with the Material Science University in Milan, Italy in 2020 to invent a new plant-based leather.
Modern Meadow/Biofabbrica Bio-Vera, Bio-Tex Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2011 Andras Forgacs, Gabor Forgacs, Karoly Jakab, Francoise Marga.

Modern Meadow Biofabricated Materials began with an initiative to develop a sustainable alternative to leather. They created Zoa™ after six years of research and development and unveiled a graphic t-shirt made from Zoa at MoMA in 2017. Further development led to the creation of Bio-Alloy™ and its application in a wide range of biofabricated materials. In 2021, Modern Meadow announced the joint venture BioFabbrica with the Italian luxury supplier Limonta.
Modern Synthesis N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived GBR 2020 Jen Keane, Ben Reeve

Modern Synthesis is a London-based biomaterial start-up creating solutions for the fashion industry. The company’s ‘microbial weaving’ process uses bacteria to grow a cellulose-based composite material.
Monark cooperative / CTT / Sherbrooke University N/A Down Plant-derived CAN 2013 Monark is a cooperative and the president is Martin Dufour. CTT is a non-profit research center, a provincial initiative to promote local (Québec) innovation.

This project is a collaborative effort between Sherbrooke University, CTT, and Monark coop. They make a non-woven insulation, part plant-based (milkweed floss), part bio-sourced. Currently using up to 10% PET as a binder which they are actively working to replace. The non-woven can be made at any density, thickness and weight requested. It can be used as insoles or as insulation for apparel. The CLO value/gsm (degree of insulation) ratio is above average, which lends it well to technical apparel. Monark is also working on a plant-based wool, which is still in development.
Muush N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium BRA 2022 Antonio Carlos de Francisco, Eduardo Sydney, Leandro Oshiro

Muush uses biotechnology combined with the reuse of agro-industrial waste to develop a vegan and sustainable mycelium biofabric. The mycelium is the vegetative part of the fungus. The fungus is grown under specific and controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Afterwards, it is treated to obtain resistance with products of plant origin, avoiding the use of chemicals that are harmful to the environment. Production is overseen and managed from input stage to finished product.
MycaNova / Citribel Mycelium Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium BEL 1919 Alphonse Cappuyns

Formerly Citrique Belge, Citribel is an independent company located in Belgium with 100 years of history in the production of citric acid and mycelium through the natural surface fermentation of sugar molasses. Today the company is transforming towards a mycelium refinery, offering a wide variety of mycelium based ingredients and components. In 2022 the company launched MycaNova®, a next-gen leather made from mycelium powder, natural or recycled base materials, and bio-based PU.
Mycel Project Myco Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium KOR 2020 Sungjin Sah, Sungwon Kim, Yunggon Park.

Mycel Project is a Hyundai Motor Group spin-off startup that develops mycelium-based materials and technologies, with biomimicry leather being one of its primary products. Mycel Project uses about 430 strains of mushrooms and 13 strains of edible fungi that have been collected from urban, forestry, and industrial food waste. By hybridization, mutagenesis, and gene editing (CRISPR), they modify or develop them to fit the usage of the target industry.
MYCL | Mycotech Lab Mylea™ Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium IDN 2015 Annisa Wibi, Adi Reza Nugroho, Ronaldiaz Hartantyo, Arekha Bentangan, Robby Zidna Ilman.

The founders came together as gourmet mushroom producers in 2012. Inspired by tempeh, a traditional Indonesian dish, they began doing makeshift research using pressure cookers to grow new materials. Using a similar process, they have been growing mycelium on agricultural waste since 2015. In partnership with the Indonesian government research agency and with laboratories in Singapore and Switzerland, Mycotech created mycelium composite panels called BIOBO, their first product. In 2019, they ran a kickstarter campaign to scale up their leather alternative Mylea. In June 2020, they announced their rebranding as MYCL (Mycotech Lab) and their certification as a B Corporation.
Mycocycle, Inc MicoFill Down Mycelium USA 2018 Joanne Rodriguez

Improving opportunities within the circular economy, Mycocycle licenses a process to minimize waste, create new materials and reduce greenhouse gasses using mushrooms. Harnessing the power of nature, Mycocycle mitigates risk for governments, manufacturers, and waste operators by removing harmful toxins from trash—in less time and at equal cost—creating a renewable resource of bio-based materials for the future.
MycoFutures Mycelium-based material Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium CAN 2020 Stephanie Lipp, Leo Gillis.

MycoFutures North Atlantic was created after the founders pivoted from developing a gourmet mushroom farm to materials using mycelium. The company adapts mushroom cultivation techniques (solid state fermentation) and vertical farming, combined with novel tanning methods, thus creating an innovative material that takes only weeks to grow without the use of animal products or plastics. The size of the material can be customized to the end use, which reduces the amount of offcut waste, and the substrate and off-cuts are compostable. The company is driven by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, particularly Number 12: Responsible Consumption and Production.
MycoWorks Reishi™ Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium USA 2013 Philip Ross, Sophia Wang, Eddie Pavlu.

Artist and inventor Philip Ross began working with mycelium in the 1990s as a medium for sculpture, and in 2013, he co-founded MycoWorks with Sophia Wang. MycoWorks first produced mycelium bricks for buildings and containers. In 2016, they created Reishi™, a pioneering leather-like material grown using Fine Mycelium™, the company’s patented biomaterials platform. In February 2020, MycoWorks presented the first Reishi™ sheets at New York Fashion Week. Reishi™ is said to meet the growing need for sustainable options for leather without compromising performance, quality, or aesthetics.
Mylium N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium NLD 2018 Iris Houthoff

Mylium was founded in 2018 by Iris Houthoff to create new sustainable materials. In 2019, Mylium received funding to build lab facilities and continue R&D in mycelium-based materials. The company uses agricultural waste as the medium for mycelial growth.
Nanollose Nullarbor™ Silk/Polyester Microbe-derived AUS 2014 Wayne Best

Nanollose is an Australian-based biotechnology company advancing innovative technologies relating to the production, processing, and applications of microbial cellulose. The company produces Nullarbor™ fiber, made from microbial cellulose using an eco-friendly lyocell process. The fiber is stronger than conventional lyocell made from trees and the starting material is made by the natural fermentation of wastes and by-products from the agricultural and food industries which contain carbohydrates.
Napee Napee Vegan Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2020 Alessandro Fabbri, Giuseppe Guido.

Based in Italy, Napee was created to develop a sustainable leather alternative to replace synthetic leather and cow leather. The company produces a compostable coated fabric made from 97% biopolymers using natural oils and up to 30% hemp, that can be customized for the buyer. The company filed two patents in 2021.
NEFFA | New Fashion Factory MYCOTEX Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium NLD 2020 Aniela Hoitink & Nicoline van Enter

NEFFA | New Fashion Factory is the first sustainable automated manufacturing method allowing for custom-fit textile products made from biomaterials, starting with MYCOTEX. MYCOTEX is a material that sits in between leather and plastics. Biomass is robotically applied around affordable, configurable and recyclable 3D molds. This patented process gives you unprecedented design freedom to create silhouettes and textures that were never possible before with traditional manufacturing processes, all while guaranteeing a perfect fit.
Newlight AirCarbon™ Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived USA 2003 Kenton Kimmel, Mark Herrema.

Newlight is a biotechnology company founded in 2003 with the idea of turning greenhouse gas into high-value materials. After years of research and development, the company’s biomaterial called AirCarbon was announced as a fully integrated commercial-scale production system using air and greenhouse gas in 2019. In 2020, Newlight Technologies launched Covalent™, a fashion brand that utilizes the natural plastic AirCarbon to make its carbon-negative accessories, including glasses, laptop sleeves, and cardholders.
NEXT-GEN LEATHER SL. BacLEATHER® Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived ESP 2012 Concha Garcia, L. A. Fernándes.

Founded in 2012, the company Next-gen Leather, former Patent Shoes Biotech, has developed a leather alternative called BacLEATHER™ made of biological and recyclable materials. The company’s goal is to produce biodegradable leather for footwear manufacturing, integrating innovations in cell culture and biofabrication to develop a material with the best properties of durability, elasticity, and breathability.
NFW Mirum® Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2015 Luke Haverhals

NFW is a material innovation company giving industries all-natural material platforms to create responsibly. NFW invents and manufactures products from plants. Beginning with inherently circular, natural ingredients, NFW intends to redefine the material ecosystem, making a plastic-free future possible. The company’s material MIRUM® is a new, plant-based complement to leather, that allows tunability in texture, color, pattern, scent, and finish. At the end of its life, MIRUM® can be recycled into new MIRUM® or ground up and returned to the earth.
Nova Milan N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived CRI 2019 Irma Orenstein, Karim Quazzani, Dror Weksler, Mycol Benhamou.

Founded in 2019, Nova Milan was created with the mission to develop the first full supply chain ecosystem to produce petroleum-free plant-based vegan leather at scale. Based in Costa Rica mainly because of its sustainable approaches, including 20M tons of plant waste fiber per year and 99% of renewable energy from clean sources, Nova Milan owns the Innovation Center (NMIC) where brands and companies can explore and innovate with their next-gen plant leather. The company also has offices in Tel Aviv.
NUVI CRETA Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived DEU 2018 Andreas Rössler, Christophe Cappon.

NUVI stands for Nouvelle Vie – a new way of living where beauty and quality go hand in hand with sustainability and ethics. NUVI is a bio-based material innovator providing scalable, plastic-free solutions for a wide range of applications. Our next-gen materials offer a measurable impact on supply chains and are made from regionally sourced plants and minerals, each reflecting the unadulterated characteristics of nature.
Oceanium N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived GBR 2018 Karen Scofield Seal and Dr Charlie Bavington

OCEANIUM develops and makes ingredients from sustainably sourced seaweed for innovative materials, food and health products.

OCEANIUM’s material formulations have a wide variety of uses for apparel, textiles and packaging including inks, coatings and leather-like materials.
Ohoskin N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2020 Adriana Santanocito

Ohoskin is an Italy-based startup that produces next-gen bio-based leather made from oranges and cacti waste, combined with PVC/PU. The company is working to get it to 100% biobased.
Oleago Oleatex™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived TUR 2021 Eşref Açık, Recep Eroğlu, Emre Eroğlu.

Oleago is a next-gen company that produces material from the olive industry and other bio-wastes. The founders, with over 70 years of experience and know-how in textile manufacturing, developed an innovative material called Oleatex a next-gen leather made from olive and other plant-based wastes, with minimum use of petrochemicals.
Ono Collaborations N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived CHE 2017 Bernadette Christina Bodenmueller.

Ono Collaborations specializes in hand-crafted accessories and upholstery made using their cork-based material. The cork is applied to the Tencel backing by hand to give the cork leather its strong but flexible structure. The company’s products are made by skilled artisans and experts to ensure the highest quality and comply with eco-friendly processes and fair working standards.
Orange Fiber N/A Silk/Polyester Plant-derived ITA 2014 Enrica Arena, Adriana Santanocito.

After conducting a feasibility study at The Polytechnic University of Milan, Adriana Santanocito and Enrica Arena patented the technology and co-founded Orange Fiber in 2014. They presented the first prototypes of fabric from their process that same year. Since its founding, the company has received funding and awards from several European brands, NGOs, and government programs. In 2017, Salvatore Ferragamo presented the first fashion collection made with Orange Fiber fabric. Orange Fiber then partnered with H&M for their Conscious Exclusive collection in 2019.
Osom Brand Osomtex® Wool/Acrylic Recycled material USA 2016 Patricia Ermecheo

Motivated to upcycle waste fabrics and keep them out of landfill, Patricia Ermecheo founded OSOM Socks and Osomtex® in 2016.  She collected waste fabrics from donated clothing, deadstock, or other unwanted materials and converted it into recycled yarn. OSOM uses state-of-the-art technology and clean solar energy for the upcycling of discarded garments used in their products. No harsh chemicals, dyes or water are used in the manufacturing of OSOM products. The company collects material directly from brands to offer a more closed-loop system for upcycling for fashion, accessories, home goods, and upholstery.
Panama Trimmings Viridis® Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 1981 Giuliano Pinato

Panama Trimmings is a well-established Italian manufacturer producing labels, hangtags, printed tapes, and similar trimmings. Founded more than 35 years ago, the company is appreciated for its quality combining experience and innovation. The company is constantly implementing sustainable solutions to preserve the environment and awareness of the environmental issues expressed by the tireless research of recycled materials. Now more than ever, sustainability represents Panama’s core value.
Pangaia FLWRDWN™, FLWRFILL™ Down Plant-derived GBR 2018 Jasmine Mullers, Rachna Bhasin, Nathalie Longuet.

Pangaia is a private materials science company that brings textile innovations directly to the consumer. The company aims to solve environmental problems in the fashion industry through the development of sustainable materials, treatments, and dyes in partnerships with researchers in Europe, Japan, Korea, and the United States. FLWRDWN™ is the company’s first down alternative, a result of 10 years of research and development. Using Pangaia’s proprietary technology, the material’s biopolymer is created from flowers and infused with a cellulose-based aerogel for increased durability. FLWRDWN™ is a fully biodegradable, hypoallergenic, and animal-free alternative to duck and goose down. In 2023, Pangaia debuted the more lightweight FLWRFILL™, made from a combination of flowers, lyocell, and a biopolymer developed in collaboration with Italian textile manufacturer Imbotex.
Pangaia Grado Zero BioGreen Padding, Kapok, nVeg Padding, MuSkin Down, Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2001 Giada Dammacco, Filippo Pagliai.

Life Materials by Pangaia Grado Zero conducts research and development in many areas, including performance materials and technologies for furnishing, automotive, and medical applications as well as custom textiles, yarns, and fibers, among many others. Among their material offerings are one leather alternative (MuSkin)  and three down alternatives (BioGreen Padding, Kapok, and nVeg Padding): 

1) MuSkin, an 100% mushroom peel alternative to animal leather, made from fungi that grow on subtropical forest trees.

2) BioGreen Padding, a high-efficiency padding polymer, made from natural and renewable resources which are partly obtained from recycled vegetable materials and partly from organic renewable sources. Suitable for pillows, duvets, quilts, garments (quilt and down jackets, etc. ), sleeping bags, performance wear like cold weather sports and more.

3) Kapok fibers come from seed pods of Ceiba trees. The fibers are extremely light and hollow, therefore, offering insulation and flotation. It is odorless and non-allergenic. Kapok can be sold loose or as a nonwoven.

4) nVeg Padding is a blend of 60% Tencel from sustainably-sourced eucalyptus trees, and 40% Kapok fiber.) The blended fibers are carded. It is available as padding and is suitable for furnishings, footwear and accessories.
PEEL Lab N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived JPN 2021 Jim Huang

PEEL Lab is a green-tech company making custom plant-based leather materials and products. They offer a full-range of design and production services. PEEL Lab transforms waste materials (fruit leaves, including pineapple, & peels, vegetable scraps) into next-gen leather. They use low-impact inputs from producers with eco and sustainability credentials.
PersiSKIN PersiSKIN Vegan Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ESP 2020 Jaime Sanfelix

Based in Valencia, Spain, PersiSKIN was founded in 2020 with the aim of using persimmon waste from regional production to develop next-gen leather that can serve as an alternative to traditional leather and synthetic leather. According to the AITEX Certificate (Textile Industry Research Association of Spain), PersisSKIN is a fabric of more than 85% natural origin, free from harmful chemicals or animal components.
Planet of the Grapes Grape Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived FRA 2020 Samantha Mureau.

Planet of the Grapes is a purpose-driven business, with a mission to reduce agricultural waste, by valorizing it and transforming it into a new, beautiful, respectable, and fully circular plant leather for the fashion industry. We fusion the worlds of innovation, science, technology, and nature.
Polartec Power Fill™ Down Recycled material USA 1906 Henry Feuerstein

Polartec® is a 100-year-old fabric company that has invented modern technical fleece and other products that range from water-wicking base layer and cooling fabrics to warm mid-layers and insulations, to weather and fire-resistant outerwear. The company’s insulation material Power Fill™ is made of 100% recycled material, 0% virgin crude, 0% plucked geese. The fill’s proprietary matrix of hollow fibers is light, compressible, and bonded together to eliminate cold spots, and it doesn’t retain moisture and provides greater warmth retention in colder conditions without added weight or bulk.
Polybion Celium® Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived MEX 2015 Alexis Gómez-Ortigoza, Axel Gómez-Ortigoza, Bárbara González Rolón.

Polybion is a Mexican-based company that uses waste as a raw material to create bacterial cellulose-based next-gen leather, thus driving the circular economy and increasing sustainability. The company’s material called Celium® is a vegan and organic next-gen leather composed of bacterial cellulose, that can be customized by color, graining, embossing, and it is water-resistant.
Portugaliacork Cork leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived PRT 2005 Ramiro Baptista

Portugaliacork helps businesses to grow by creating and developing unique products made of cork. Consequently, from wine cork stoppers to cork fabrics, our technical team has gathered years of experience.
PrimaLoft PrimaLoft® Bio™, PrimaLoft® ThermoPlume® Down Recycled material USA 1983 PrimaLoft, Inc.

​​The PrimaLoft company is a world leader in research and development of high-performance insulations and fabrics used in fashion, home furnishings, and outerwear. PrimaLoft® insulation was originally developed for the U.S. army as a water-resistant down alternative and the company has continued to innovate in this space. In 2018, the company introduced PrimaLoft® Bio™ as the first biodegradable, 100% recycled synthetic insulation and fabric. Three years later, in 2021, they introduced PrimaLoft® ThermoPlume®, made from 100% post-consumer recycled synthetic materials.
Provenance Bio N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived USA 2016 Michalyn Andrews, Christian Ewton

Provenance Bio is an alternative proteins company founded in 2012 that develops synthetic biology tools to compete with animal proteins. The company count with a team of industry veterans, groundbreaking synthetic biologists, pioneers in cellular construction, and leaders in the programming of proteins, working together to create the future of cultivated meats, leather alternatives, and next-generation therapeutics. Provenance Biofabrics’ patent-pending microbial platform makes functional, full-length collagen for B-to-B applications in pharmaceutical gelatin, bio leather, and cell-based meat scaffolding. This function form of collagen called full-length, type 1, is the ideal building block for producing the new material.
Proyecto Menos es Más Bambuflex© Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ARG 2010 Natalia Pérez

Natalia Pérez founded Proyecto Menos es Más – Estudio de Diseño in 2010 to focus on sustainable design, art, and architecture. After participating in a workshop on using bamboo in 2012, Pérez began a partnership with the Argentinian National Institute of Industrial Technology to develop a bamboo-based material to mitigate the effects of climate change. After 4 years of research and development, she developed a version with the properties she was looking for. Collaboration with Nicolás Cludius on formula refinement and commercialization led to the creation of Bambuflex, a leather alternative with a suede-like texture.
Pureway Biotechnology LTD Meri™ Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium CHN 2022 Meichun Li, Li Wang

PurewayBio is dedicated to providing material solutions for a better future by seeking synergy between nature, biology, and technology. Inspired by fungal mycelium, we use cutting-edge technology, combined with manufacturing expertise, to create next-generation materials that blend performance and aesthetics.

We have established our own fungus library and use gene editing, precision fermentation, and data-driven technologies to achieve scaled production and customisation. Grounded in science, we envision a future where nature and technology collaborate, creating innovations that resonate with harmony and contribute to a better world.
Qorium N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Cultivated animal cells NLD 2015 Rutger Ploem, Stef Kranendijk, Mark Post.

Qorium was founded in 2014 and developed a proof of concept of cultivated leather. The company technology involves collecting a sample of animal cells that are placed in a cultivator with the nutrients necessary for growth and division. Compared to conventional leather, Qorium claims their cultivated leather is made by using 99% less water, and 66% less energy, without the most polluting first two phases of the tanning process and without any methane gas as emitted by livestock.
Really Clever N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived GBR 2021 Patrick Baptista Pinto & Matthew Millar

Really Clever creates sustainable, organic materials from bio-based ingredients and fungal waste, helping brands greatly reduce their carbon footprint compared to animal alternatives. Their technology also allows for innovation with 72 million different material specifications, while ensuring 100% material utilization and minimizing waste. Central to their philosophy is making sustainability accessible and affordable to all consumers by emphasizing high throughput, scalability, and cost reduction, enabling brands to create innovative, category-defining products without compromising on sustainability.
Renewcell Circulose® Silk/Polyester Recycled material SWE 2012 Mikael Lindström, Christofer Lindgren, Malcolm Norlin, Gunnar Henriksson.

Renewcell is a Stockholm-based company that turns discarded textiles into 100% biodegradable raw material for the fashion industry. The company’s material, Circulose®, is a ‘dissolving pulp’ from 100% textile waste, including worn-out jeans and production scraps. Renewcell’s technology dissolves used cotton and other cellulose fibers and transforms them into the biodegradable raw material (pulp) that is used by the textile industry to make viscose, lyocell, modal, acetate, and other types of regenerated fibers.
Revoltech LOVR Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived/hemp waste DEU 2021 Montgomery Wagner, Julian Mushövel, Lucas Fuhrmann.

Revoltech has created an alternative to leather that is completely plastic-free, recyclable, and biodegradable. The company’s material is made from the agricultural waste of industrial hemp cultivation in Germany. Hemp works as an efficient carbon sink has a high density of cultivation, and its availability in the European Union is increasing due to the growing CBD market. Revoltech takes a by-product that would otherwise be discarded to turn it into a malleable, non-abrasive, and soft material. According to Revoltech, this material saves over 99% CO2 compared to leather.
Rheom Materials SHORAI™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2020 Zimri T. Hinshaw

Rheom Materials strives to enable the biobased material transition by partnering with companies to make biobased materials an accessible sustainable solution. Blending commercially available biobased ingredients and global extrusion technology, Rheom Materials engineers biomaterials at the pace of consumer demand. From the same melt-flow process, our materials easily adapt to various form factors—sheets, injection molded components, fibers, and more. Scaling up seamlessly with existing manufacturing, hundreds of domestic and thousands of international plastics toll manufacturers, making larger orders a straightforward process. Welcome to Rheom Materials, the potential of flow.
Rubi Laboratories N/A Silk/Polyester Recycled material USA 2020 Neeka and Leila Mashouf

Rubi exists to ensure our planetary future by restoring Earth’s ecological balance with reimagined supply chains that are symbiotic with the planet.

Inspired by how trees grow, Rubi uses biochemical processes powered by enzymes at an industrial scale to “eat” carbon emissions and make carbon-negative, resource-neutral textiles. Rubi’s patent-pending, cell-free biocatalysis process captures and converts CO2 from the waste streams of manufacturing facilities into cellulose. The converted cellulose is then used to create lyocell yarn which can be used for clothing and materials. 100% of CO2 inputted to the end product is done with zero waste.

While Rubi is starting with textiles for the fashion industry, its technology can be applied to all areas of manufacturing including buildings, packaging, food, medicine, and other advanced materials.
Ponda BioPuff® Down Plant-derived GBR 2020 Antonia Jara-Contreras, Neloufar Taheri, Julian Ellis-Brown, Finlay Duncan.

Ponda (formally Saltyco®) is a materials science company that develops a plant-based alternative for down called BioPuff®. The material is a lightweight cellulose fiber fill that has a cluster structure that traps heat within small air pockets to retain warmth. BioPuff® has been tested and benchmarked against well-known petroleum-based, plant-based, and animal-based fiber fill materials. Its thermal insulation is comparable to 600-fill power goose-down, can save up to 30 geese, reduce petroleum by 70% per jacket, and save up to 25 liters of water. Their manufactured facility called Halolab® is in Scotland, where the raw materials are warehoused and mechanically processed.
Save The Duck Plumtech® Down Recycled material ITA 2012 Nicolas Bargi

In 2014, Save the Duck created PLUMTECH®, a synthetic down made from recycled polyester providing outdoor enthusiasts with outerwear that allows easy movement. It is durable, light, packable, and machine-washable. Due to its high-density fibers, Plumtech™ features the compressibility of down, along with thermal insulation. Save the Duck is a B Corp.
Scays Group WASTEA Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived TUR 2005 Erdem Dogan

WASTEA is a sustainable, plant and bio-based alternative to animal leather and current-gen PU/PVC qualities. It can be implemented vertically into all product categories.

WASTEA is made from industrial tea waste and offers qualities with bio mass ranges of 65 – over 90%. These qualities are in-stock and can be delivered within 48 hours.

The tea plant is eco-friendly with no watering or pesticides required. Turkey is the 4th largest producer of tea in the world and largely employs women.

WASTEA was founded by the Scays Group, a Turkey-based manufacturer.
Sci-Lume Labs™ Bylon™ Silk/Polyester Plant-derived USA 2021 Oliver Shafaat

Sci-Lume Labs makes Bylon, the truly circular apparel fiber that can replace conventional fibers like nylon, polyester, and cotton. Bylon is made from biobased agricultural waste; is 100% recyclable and biodegradable; can drop into existing manufacturing facilities; offers familiar performance versatility; and is compatible with conventional downstream yarn and textile processing. Bylon can significantly abate industry emissions and, by delivering both circularity and commercial viability, is uniquely capable of achieving the large-scale adoption needed to enable a circular apparel future.
ScobyTec ScobyTec BNC Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived DEU 2014 Carolin Wendel, Bernhard Schipper, Carolin Schulze.

ScobyTec is a German startup with an interdisciplinary research team from the fields of biology, software development, industrial design, and clothing technology. ScobyTec develops materials from bacterial cellulose as well as their scalable finishing and production processes. The company explores sustainable and vegan materials for the textile and automotive industry to replace animal and/or fossil-based polymers. Their main goal is to bring a material that is sustainable throughout the entire production chain to the market with a comparable cost-benefit factor with the same qualitative characteristics as conventional leather, textiles, and plastics.
Seevix Material Sciences SVX™ Silk/Polyester Microbe-derived ISR 2014 Shlomzion Shen, Shmulik Ittah.

Seevix was founded in 2014 after more than a decade of research at the Hebrew University. The goal of the company is to copy the natural production of spider silk to create high-performance products and materials, with an initial focus on materials for the medical industry. In May 2020, Asics Ventures invested in SVX, the spider silk fiber produced by Seevix, for sporting goods. Seevix works with companies in the aerospace, automotive, 3D printing, and cosmetics industries, among others, to create or reinforce materials using SVX.
Sileather N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Blend USA 2012 Robert Walton

Focused on sustainability and performance, Sileather developed fabrics made of 100% silicone after many years of research and development with the commitment to providing environmentally friendly, comfortable, and more durable synthetic leather. The company materials can be used in interior and exterior design, public transportation, outdoor furniture, and other applications.
Slow Factory Labs Slowhide™ Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived USA 2021 Céline Semaan, Colin Vernon.

Slow Factory is a school, knowledge partner, and climate innovation lab focused on addressing the intersecting crises of climate justice and social inequity through narrative change and regenerative design. Their material Slowhide™ is a next-gen lab-grown leather from Slow Factory Labs that uses a plastic-free green chemistry process to transform bio-fabricated SCOBY nanocellulose into a biodegradable fabric.
SmartFiber AG SeaCell™ Silk/Polyester Plant-derived DEU 2005 Subsidiary of Lenzing AG.

Using production methods created by the Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastic Research (TITK) in Rudolstadt, Germany, SmartFiber AG combines marine algae and zinc with cellulose to create sustainable textile fibers. In July 2007, Smartfiber AG took over its competitor SeaCell to expand research, production, and marketing potential. SeaCell™ is made from cellulose and seaweed, and the company’s material Smartcel™ is a fiber-based on cellulose that includes zinc.
SmartFiber AG Smartcel™ Silk/Polyester Plant-derived DEU 2005 Subsidiary of Lenzing AG.

Using production methods created by the Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastic Research (TITK) in Rudolstadt, Germany, SmartFiber AG combines marine algae and zinc with cellulose to create sustainable textile fibers. In July 2007, Smartfiber AG took over its competitor SeaCell to expand research, production, and marketing potential. SeaCell™ is made from cellulose and seaweed, and the company’s material Smartcel™ is a fiber-based on cellulose that includes zinc.
SpadXTech N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived USA 2020 Lina M. Gonzalez, Connor Crawford

SpadXTech uses microbes and synthetic biology to produce circular materials. Using green fermentation tech and proprietary biotechnology, they are able to produce customizable materials that are appropriate for many applications including apparel.
Spiber Inc. Brewed Protein™ Fur, Leather/Exotic Skins, Silk/Polyester, Wool/Acrylic Microbe-derived JPN 2007 Kazuhide Sekiyama, Sugawara Junichi.

Spiber Inc. is a Japanese biotechnology company developing protein fibers. With the expansion of their protein fermentation facility in Thailand, Spiber aims to manufacture sustainable protein-based fibers at a competitive cost. Commercial production capacity is expected to be several hundred tons per year. Brewed Protein™ is made via a fermentation process that uses sugars and microbes. Brewed Protein™ is versatile and can be blended with other fibers.

The company anticipates that Brewed Protein fibers and materials will be alternatives to animal fibers and petroleum-based fibers for the fashion, automotive, and medical industries.
Spidey Tek N/A Silk/Polyester Plant-derived USA 2015 Roberto Velozzi

Spidey Tek Inc. was founded in 2015 as a Material Science Company by bio-materials science experts, Roberto Velozzi, and Randy Lewis, PhD., the first to determine the molecular structure of spider silks and one of the pioneers in producing spider silk proteins. Spidey Tek encodes alfalfa plants with the genes that produce spider silk proteins in their leaves. The enhanced alfalfa crops are harvested from fields that regrow for up to 5 years without replanting. Thus, the spider silk proteins are separated and purified into a powder that can be used in many applications.
Spinnova N/A Wool/Acrylic Plant-derived FIN 2014 Juha Salmela

In 2009 Technical Research Centre of Finland’s (VTT) cellulose expert, Juha Salmela, attended a presentation on the similarities between spider web protein and nanocellulose. After four years of research, the idea went from the laboratory to industrial pilot, and then to the startup Spinnova, earning Salmela the title of 2018’s European CTO of the Year in the category for small and medium-size companies. With their proprietary technology, Spinnova is able to transform pulp cellulose material into usable filament fibers without the use of harmful chemicals. These fibers can be knitted or woven to mimic wool and also have the unique ability to be upcycled and reused again and again. Spinnova fibers are biodegradable.
Spora Biotech Sporatex™ Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium CHL 2017 Hernán Rebolledo, José Miguel Figueroa.

Spora Biotech is a biotechnological startup committed to create solutions to impact climate change, animal abuse, and humanitarian issues around the world. The company develop a mycelium-based leather called Sporatex™.
SQIM Ephea Leather/Exotic Skins Mycelium ITA 2015 Maurizio Montalti and Stefano Babbini

SQIM is a bio-tech and bio-materials company developing innovative processes and products employing fungal mycelium as key bio-fabrication agent. The valorization of residual materials’ streams by means of microbial fermentation results in applications across multiple industries.

As (bio-)technological holding, today SQIM serves its two verticals/brands:

– ephea –> flexible biomaterials/products dedicated to fashion, automotive, interior, etc.

– mogu –> composite biomaterials & products dedicated to interior design and architecture
Tandem Repeat Squitex Silk/Polyester, Wool/Acrylic Microbe-derived USA 2017 Gozde Senel-Ayaz, Benjamin Allen, Melik Demirel.

Tandem Repeat is a synthetic biology and materials science company that eliminates plastic pollution and minimizes the dependence on animal-based products with a unique all-natural performance fabric that is friendly to existing manufacturing processes. Tandem Repeat found a way to mimic the proteins found in squid, and using fermentation, they have developed Squitex: a silken, protein blend fiber with unique stretch, strength, and self-healing properties. It is also sustainable and thermally responsive.
The Center for Renewable Materials (UC San Diego) N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Microbe-derived USA 2020 Anastasia Bachykala, Michael Burkart, Luca Bonanomi, Naser Pourahmady.

The Renewable Materials Center of UC San Diego was developed for teams of biologists, chemists, structural engineers, and industrial designers to engage in transdisciplinary study to build the future of sustainable materials. Their team of experts has developed algae-derived fully biodegradable coatings that can be applied to the SCOBY to produce next-gen leather.
The Lycra Company THERMOLITE® EcoMade T-DOWN Down Recycled material USA 1958 N/A

THERMOLITE® is a brand of the family of polyester fibers and insulation of The Lycra Company, a textile company for over 60 years in the market developing new industry technologies. THERMOLITE® EcoMade T-DOWN technology is made from 100% recycled PET bottles spun in a way that creates air pockets between each fiber to keep the wearer warm even when the fabric is wet.
Thermore Ecodown® Down Recycled material NLD 1972 Lucio Siniscalchi

Since its founding in 1972, Thermore has been a leader and innovator in thermal insulation. The company manufactures a range of down alternative fibers for the outerwear market. The Ecodown® product line, made exclusively from post-consumer PET water bottles, was launched in 2018.
TômTex TômTex Series M Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2020 Uyen Tran
TômTex is a material science company dedicated to developing a cutting-edge platform technology for creating sustainable textiles sourced directly from waste materials, not fossil fuels. They are building a 100% bio-based material that is plastic-free and 100% naturally biodegradable without toxic chemicals.
TômTex Series M ® (Mushroom Chitosan) 100% Plant based
Toray Industries, Inc. Ultrasuede® Leather/Exotic Skins Blend JPN 1926 Mitsui Group

The Toray Group’s expertise is in organic synthetic and polymer chemistry as well as in biochemistry. In addition to plastics and chemicals, their core businesses are fibers and textiles. The company’s Ultrasuede® HP alternative leather incorporates plant-based materials into its Ultrasuede line.
Ultrafabrics Ultraleather® Volar Bio Leather/Exotic Skins Blend USA 1966 Clay Andrew Rosenberg, Barbara Danielle Boecker-Primack.

Ultrafabrics manufactures leather-free performance fabrics for a variety of applications in the automotive, aviation, health care, hospitality, and home goods industries. Their Ultraleather® Volar Bio fabric incorporates plant-based materials into their Ultraleather line.
Uncaged Innovations N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2020 Stephanie Downs

Uncaged Innovations is a biomaterials company combining the power of nature and technology to reimagine leather. The company has developed a technology platform of biomimetic substitutes for animal hides and skins and seeks to redefine the use of leather in fashion and consumer goods while mitigating damage to the environment and cruel behavior. The company is developing vegan leather by fusing plant collagen from grain byproducts with natural oils and bio-based elastomers to create fibril networks that mimic animal leather without sacrificing its original characteristics.
Mabel srl (Uppeal™) Uppeal™ Leather/Exotic Skins Blend ITA 2023 Mabel srl

Uppeal™develops and manufactures sustainable textiles using apple waste from the northern region of Italy widely known for its apple production. Uppeal™ was created in response to the local issue of apple waste and the increasing demand for ecological alternatives to leather. This next-gen material contains a minimum of 50% apple fiber and can be produced in a variety of textures, thicknesses, embossing, and laser prints.
Vegatex Vegatex™ Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived CHN 2011 N/A

Vegatex Biotech Limited was incorporated on February 17, 2021, as a private company limited by shares registered in Hong Kong. Before, the biobased content was produced by Paq Group International Limited. Vegatex™, the company’s material, is a sustainable hybrid plant-based biobased leather, made of 66% of fruit waste and lees from the beer brewing process.
Vegea N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived ITA 2016 Francesco Merlino, Gianpiero Tessitore, Valentina Longobardo.

Founded in 2016 in Milan, Vegea was created to promote the integration between chemistry and agriculture through the development of new eco-sustainable products. The architect Gianpiero Tessitore and the environmental chemist Francesco Merlino became business partners when they discovered that grape marc (the remains after pressing the grapes into wine) contains fibers and oils ideal for the development of a more sustainable material that resembles the mechanical, aesthetic, and sensory characteristics of a cow’s skin.
Vegeto Milkweed Down Plant-derived CAN 2018 Louis Bibeau

Vegeto is a Canadian supplier in the sustainable production and processing of plant textile fibers. The company’s material Milkweed is non-woven thermal insulation made from a blend of milkweed and kapok fibers, and a biopolymer made from cornstarch.
VegSkin N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived FRA 2020 Loïc Debrabander, Anaëlle Picavet.

Vegeskin is a France-based company built to recycle fruit waste into material for leather goods and furniture. The company’s material is a next-gen leather made of banana and mangoes waste.

VitroLabs N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Cultivated animal cells USA 2016 Ingvar Helgason

VitroLabs was founded in 2016 by Ingvar Helgason, a professional with a background in the fashion industry, and Dusko Ilic, an experienced stem cell biologist with expertise in tissue engineering. The company uses a similar process as in the creation of cultivated (also known as clean) meat: a sample of animal cells is placed in a cultivator with the nutrients necessary for growth and division. The natural growth process occurs more efficiently in the cultivator and the resulting cells and tissues are identical to their animal-based counterparts.
Volkswagen N/A Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived DEU 1937 German Labour Front

Volkswagen Group Innovation, belonging to the German motor vehicle manufacturer Volkswagen has partnered with a regional coffee roasting house in Braunschweig to work on next-gen materials for vehicle interiors. The main idea behind developing this “coffee leather” is that conventional leather alternatives are usually made from multi-layered material that consists of a textile back, filling materials, and the actual surface top layer. To increase the organic percentage of leather alternatives in the short term, Volkswagen investigated replacing the filling materials layer with a by-product from coffee roasting. The material samples taken to date have an organic material exceeding 50 percent.
Volvo Nordico Leather/Exotic Skins Blend SWE 1927 Assar Gabrielsoon, Gustav Larson

The Volvo Group is a Swedish multinational manufacturing corporation headquartered in Gothenburg. The brand is moving away from bovine leather with the next generation of Volvo models and has developed an in-house next-gen leather material. The company-new material called Nordico consists of textiles produced from recycled PET bottles, recycled cork, and biomaterials sourced from forests in Sweden and Finland.
von Holzhausen Banbū Leather Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived USA 2015 Vicki von Holzhausen

Vicki von Holzhausen launched her company in 2015 to create sustainable accessories. Using her experience as an automotive designer, she continues to innovate in the animal-free leather space. The company produces Banbū Leather – a high-performing premium leather alternative made from bamboo, and Technik-Leather™ – a 100% animal-free performance fabric created from recycled fibers and plants.
von Holzhausen Technik-Leather™ Leather/Exotic Skins Recycled material USA 2015 Vicki von Holzhausen

Vicki von Holzhausen launched her company in 2015 to create sustainable accessories. Using her experience as an automotive designer, she continues to innovate in the animal-free leather space. The company produces Banbū Leather – a high-performing premium leather alternative made from bamboo, and Technik-Leather™ – a 100% animal-free performance fabric created from recycled fibers and plants.
Werewool N/A Microbe-derived USA 2018 Theanne Schiros, PhD, Chui-Lian Lee, Valentina Gomez, Allie Obermeyer, PhD

Werewool is a biomaterials company that develops fibers with tailored aesthetic and performance properties. Inspired by nature, they design fibers at the DNA level to create sustainable textiles with inherent properties, creating low impact materials with a circular life cycle. Their engineered microbes brew designer proteins that give performance and color to textile fibers without plastics and water pollution.
Zvnder Fungiskin Leather/Exotic Skins Plant-derived DEU 2017 Nina Fabert

ZVNDER was founded in 2017 by designer Nina Fabert after material studies and research on the processing of tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius). The company material, FUNGISKIN, is cut from a single mushroom body and varies in size, color, and shape accordingly. It cannot be produced in large sheets. Because it is an entirely natural product, FUNGISKIN shows traces of use over time and is sensitive to moisture and dirt. According to the company, FUNGISKIN feels soft due to its high air content, which also gives it insulating properties.